Browsing Research and Scholarship by Author "Agnello, Gabriel"
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ItemExperimental and Theoretical Investigations of Glass Surface Charging Phenomena(New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University. Inamori School of Engineering., 2016-04) Agnello, Gabriel; LaCourse, William; Cormack, Alastair; Clare, Alexis; Edwards, DoreenCharging behavior of multi-component display-type (i.e. low alkali) glass surfaces has been studied using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. Data obtained by way of a Rolling Sphere Test (RST), streaming/zeta potential and surface energy measurements from commercially available display glass surfaces (Corning EAGLE XG® and LotusTM XT) suggest that charge accumulation is highly dependent on surface treatment (chemical and/or physical modification) and measurement environment, presumably through reactionary mechanisms at the surface with atmospheric moisture. It has been hypothesized that water dissociation, along with the corresponding hydroxylation of the glass surface, are important processes related to charging in glass-metal contact systems. Classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, in conjunction with various laboratory based measurements (RST, a newly developed ElectroStatic Gauge (ESG) and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS)) on simpler Calcium AluminoSilicate (CAS) glass surfaces were used to further explore these phenomena. Analysis of simulated high-silica content (≥50%) (CAS) glass structures suggest that controlled variation of bulk chemistry can directly affect surface defect concentrations, such as non-bridging oxygen (NBO), which can be suitable high-energy sites for hydrolysis-type reactions to occur. Calculated NBO surface concentrations correlate well with charge based measurements on laboratory fabricated CAS surfaces. The data suggest that a directional/polar shift in contact-charge transfer occurs at low silica content (≤50%) where the highest concentrations of NBOs are observed. Surface charging sensitivity with respect to NBO concentration decreases as the relative humidity of the measurement environment increases; which should be expected as the highly reactive sites are progressively covered by liquid water layers. DRIFTS analysis of CAS powders expand on this analysis showing a gradual increase in molecular water absorption at the surface in samples containing ≥60% silica, and an abrupt decrease in those with ≤60% silica. This behavior is very likely related to the aforementioned charge polarity shift (negative (-) to positive (+)) in low silica containing glasses, leading to the conclusion that structural defect mediated charge accumulation and/or transfer are likely to be important mechanisms related to the contact charging of glass surfaces.