Potassium Iodide-Coated Glass Slides for the Antibacterial Application Against E. faecalis and S. aureus and Antiviral Potentiation Action for a Post-Operative Setting
New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University. Inamori School of Engineering.
Prior to the development of this thesis, an extensive literature review was conducted to explore coatings on medical devices to garner the necessary background. The literature highlights four fundamental aspects of coating technology. The first aspect is the ability of a coating to enhance the material properties of the substrate. This includes hardness, opacity, fatigue, as well as osseointegration and biocompatibility. The second aspect describes the different methods by which substrates can be coated, including dip coating, spin coating, and ultrasonic deposition. These coating processes helped to lay the foundation of the research plan described below. the third aspect that is described within the literature review is the extensive characterization methods that are necessary to perform on a coated, implantable medical device. The descriptions of characterization methods include, but are not limited to, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Raman Spectroscopy, and X-ray Crystallography. This section aims to outline the necessary procedures required to determine the structure of the coated device. Finally, the fourth aspect describes how adding a coating to a medical device can influence the antibacterial properties of the implant. This is explored in two sections, with emphasis on internal devices and dental implants individually addressed. This is the key portion related to developing the research described in the research proposal. The research goal is to synthesize and characterize potassium iodide (KI) coated borosilicate glass and apply this technology to determine the overall antibacterial and antiviral properties of the coated substrate. The glass itself will be coated with three different methods to produce the most even thin film: ultrasonic coating, dip-coating, and spin-coating. Afterwards, extensive characterization of both the uncoated borosilicate glass and coated glass will be performed. The antibacterial aspect of KI-coated glass will be assessed using a broth and an agar study. KI is known to be an effective growth inhibitor of Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-negative bacterium which will be explored in this experiment. The other strain of bacteria that will be observed is Staphylococcus aureus, which has been shown to be inhibited by KI in photodynamic therapy when coupled with a photosensitizer (titanium dioxide). The photodynamic therapy will be extended to assess the effectiveness against a virus using a plaque assay. The final piece of the research plan is to determine the cytocompatibility and stability of the coating in simulated physiological fluid. The coated glass slides will be incubated in cell culture coupled with a vitality assay to assess the toxicity of the sample. As well, the coated glass slides will be incubated in simulated physiological fluid to assess the changes in the surface characteristics of the coated glass as well as the changes in the incubation media to determine any potential toxic effects. The educational goal, pertaining to the proposed research, is to incorporate the research findings from this work into the class curriculum on Biocompatibility of Materials (CEMS 465). This will include describing antibacterial or antiviral coating applications of glass, dissolution kinetics and subsequent effects on material biocompatibility in response to physiological fluids, to stimulate interest in the applicability of glass based biomaterials to the medical field.
Thesis completed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biomaterials Engineering at the Inamori School of Engineering, New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University