Development of Novel Copper Glass Containing Bone Adhesives for Orthopaedic Applications: Structural, Mechanical, and Biological Evaluation

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New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University. Inamori School of Engineering.
The main objective of this thesis was to design and develop new formulations of hybrid organic-inorganic bone cements based on Cu incorporated glasses, that could be utilized for orthopedic applications and, by doing so, expand their clinical indications. Cu-containing glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) were developed through modification of the glass composition, and were characterized by their physical, mechanical, and biological behavior. Three separate glass compositions were synthesized, and the effect of Cu addition was investigated in relation to the glass structure, morphology, and composition. In vitro biological behavior was initially evaluated by studying the solubility profiles of the glass compositions and the resultant cements. Each composition encouraged bone bonding and provided positive therapeutic effects, such as skeletal tissue mineralization which was confirmed using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) trials, and osteoblast cell viability studied using cytotoxicity assays. Bacterial testing of the GPCs assessed against three prevalent strains of bacteria and indicated superior antibacterial efficacy of the Cu incorporated GPCs which could substantially minimize medical device complications triggered by bacterial infections. The mechanical properties were evaluated by studying the compressive, flexural, and shear bond strength of the GPCs, and as a function of their maturation time. Interfacial studies performed between hydroxyapatite (mineralized bone tissue) and the cements, suggested extensive chemical bonding has occurred leading to strong interfacial bonding at the material/bone tissue interface. Further studies on the mechanical properties of GPCs synthesized from crystallized Cu containing glasses, revealed a viscoelastic behavior of the GPCs with exceptional compressibility, which is believed that could benefit a wide range of requirements in the development of bone tissue cements.
Dissertation completed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Materials Science and Engineering at the Inamori School of Engineering, New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University
Bone cements, Biomedical materials, Glass, Glass composition, Orthopedics